DEPARTMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
(HOSPITAL BASED CANCER
KIDWAI MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
PROF. & HEAD
is estimated that about 9 million new cancer cases are diagnosed every year and over 4.5
million people die from cancer each year in the world.
INDIA: The estimated number of new cancers in India per year is
about 7 lakhs and over 3.5 lakhs people die of cancer each year. Out of these 7 lakhs new
cancers about 2.3 lakhs (33%) cancers are tobacco related.
KARNATAKA: There would be about 1.5 lakhs cancer cases at any
given time in Karnataka and about 35,000 new cancer cases are added to this pool each
The Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
comprises of both the Hospital Based Cancer Registry and Population Based
Cancer Registry. The Hospital Based Cancer Registry collects
information on each and every patient registered at Kidwai Memorial
Institute of Oncology in a predivised questionnaire devised by the National
Cancer Registry Programme Project of the Indian Council of Medical Research.
The Registry Provides Information on the Magnitude of cancer patients
attending KIMIO, various types of cancers, the treatment particulars and its
outcome, which enables the Insitution to plan for the management / control
of the cancer disease. The information so collected by the registry
enables initiation of epidemiological studies to find out various causative
factors for different cancers and also play an important role in Cancer
Control Activities. Over 16,000 new cases are registered every year
with more than 20 % from neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil
Nadu and Kerala.
The Faculty staff of the Department is also involved in
teaching students of Undergraduate, Postgraduate students and also for
Superspeciality courses in addition to involvement in many of the Research
Projects / Clinical Trials conducted by various departments of the
Research Activities - Projects:
1. Cancer Atlas Project: The HBCR is involved in the
Cancer Atlas Project of the WHO, ICMR under taken by the
NCRP since 2001 and provide information on all non resident cases
registered at KMIO.
2. Pattern of Care and Survival Studies: The HBCR has
taken up the project titled "Pattern of Care and Survival Studies in Head
and Neck Cancers, Cancers of Cervix and Breast".
All though thousands of cancer patients are receiving
treatment from various cancer hospitals in India, no scientific evaluation
of therapeutic efficacy in terms of pattern of care and survival has been
done. The data from HBCRs of India has shown that Cancer of Cervix
(28%) and Breast (16%) in women are most common and cancer of Head and Neck
region constitute about 30 % of all cancer in males and females.
Realising the problem of follow-up of cancer patients wherein huge number of
patients drop out from regular follow-up visits. ICMR decided to initiate
pattern of care and survival studies on three of the most common cancers i.e
Cancer of Cervix, cancer of Breast and Head and Neck Cancers. The
project being carried out in all the HBCRs of India where Cancer Registry
OBJECTS OF THE PROJECT:
To obtain core indentifying and diagnostic
information in all patients in the particular center /
Institution with cancer cervix / breast / head and Neck.
To record details of clinical stage and types of
treatment of patients included.
To have periodic follow-up and record the patient
and disease status in all patients suffering from these cancers so as to
have clinical stage and treatment based on survival on these sites of
The project has already been in progress with grants
funded by the ICMR. The duration of the project is of 3 years.
Two epidemiological studies - One on Oral Cancers and
another one on Pharyngeal cancers are in progress which are aimed at
investigating various risk factors in the causation of these two major sites
Leading Sites of Cancer - Male:
Pharyngeal cancers (excluding cancer of nasopharynx)
continue to be the most common form of cancers among males and accounts
for 14.1% of the total cancers in males. Among Pharyngeal cancers, cancer
of the Hypopharynx is the most predominant site of cancer accounting for
over 68 % of the Pharyngeal cancers. The other common cancers among
males in order are oral cavity (11.2%), Leukaemias (8.4%), Oesophagus
(8.3%) and Lung (6.8%)
Leading Sites of Cancer - Female:
Cancer of the cervix uteri continues to be the most
predominant site of cancer and accounted for 26.7% of all cancers in
females. Cancer of the breast is the second most common site (16.6%)
followed by cancers of oral cavity (11%), Oesophagus (5.7%) and ovary
(5%). Over the years, a gradual decrease in the proportion of
cervical cancers and marginal but steady increase in the numbers and
relative proportion of breast cancers is observed.
The Commonest cancers among Males and Females seen at KMIO-2004-05 are as below: